In highly explosive environments, refuge chambers and safe havens can be adapted to withstand overpressure of up to 15 psi. A refuge chambers resistance to explosions can be determined through pressure testing.
Every refuge chamber requires an emergency power source to maintain the life-sustaining equipment if mains power fails.
Fire dangers exist in underground mining and tunnelling operations.
Hydrogen Sulfide is naturally generated in situ from reservoirs and sulfate containing minerals
In an underground environment, Methane concentrations are extremely hazardous
Numerous heat sources affect the internal temperature of a refuge chamber. A continuous build-up of heat and humidity…
Chemical scrubbing is the process of removing undesired gases from the air using chemical reactions
Breathable air is air that can support life, has enough oxygen in its mix, and doesn’t contain contaminants…